One of the most ancient and popular breeds. It is an affectionate and energetic dog, the embodiment of a loyal fluffy friend.

Energy level
Level of affection
Level of friendliness
female: 16—20 kg
male: 20—30 kg
female: 46—51 cm
male: 51—56 cm
require average time
Gives birth to
Gives birth to:
3—7 puppies
Russian Federation
in 9 century
Life span
Life span:
13—15 years


Samoyed friendly pets. For appearing happy all the time, they got called «smiling dogs». Trying to make a reliable guard out of a Samoyed dog is pointless. These pets like people and treat everyone with friendliness. In the past, they were used for making babies warm in harsh winter conditions. The only thing this dog can do if it sees a stranger is loud barking. That is why Samoyed pets are used only as guard dogs. Because of getting very attached to people, these dogs do not get easily through loneliness. They need a constant contact with people. Being part of a pack is in their blood. Isolation destroys pet`s psyche and health. That is why this breed is not for busy people.

Samoyed dogs are very active. Their energy remains throughout whole life. Pulling loads and running on long distances are their favourite things to do. Without physical exercises, Samoyed dogs become bored and disobedient. This breed is not for people looking for a calm pet.

Samoyed dogs get on well with other animals. Showing aggression and trying to be dominant is not about this breed. That is why the dog will affectionately meet any new pet at home. The only disadvantage of the breed is their self-confidence. Despite being loyal to people, they might resist if they feel that the owner is not right.


Samoyed dogs need to be trained. These pets are smart, but stubborn. For centuries, they lived in harsh conditions and took decisions themselves — without help of people — in order to survive. This made these dogs independent.

Samoyed dogs should be trained right after they turn 3 months old. Because of having ancestors that lived in packs, they got used to listening to a leader and working in a team. That is why it is so important to show your authority to the dog right after its purchase. A Samoyed will not obey to someone who it does not respect. However, even while respecting the owner, the dog is ready to work with him, but not for him.

Samoyed dogs quickly get used to house rules. It will be enough to explain the pet what it is allowed to do, and what is forbidden, only few times. If the pet gets used to doing something, it will be hard to teach it not to do that.

Patience and love are key feelings in training a Samoyed dog. If the pet disobeys the rules — it should not be beaten. However, if the dog did something wrong, you need to grab it at withers and hold its head close to the ground for some time. Samoyed dogs easily remember basic commands, but perform them with difficulty. That is why it is important to make the training process easy and interesting. If you cannot get on well with the dog yourself — you should consult a professional trainer.


Samoyed dogs are of medium size. Their body is muscular and well-proportional. The breed can be divided into 2 types judging by appearance of pets: bear and wolf Samoyed dogs. Body of bear ones is longer, but the head is smaller. Wolf Samoyed pets are smaller, but have a wider head.
Long, fluffy and thick. The undercoat is short and soft. A thick collar of hair is acceptable around the neck. 
White and creamy. White-biscuit and pale-creamy colors are also acceptable.
Big, wedge-shaped. The skull is slightly convex.
Almond-shaped, of medium size. They are wide-set. Eye colors are: brown, dark-brown and black.
Small and thick. They are triangular-shaped, erect-type ears. Tips are slightly rounded.
Muscular and straight, of medium size.
Straight, of medium size.
Long and bushy, held behind the back.

Basic Care

Samoyed dogs need a long time to be groomed. Their long hair has to be brushed once a week, using a special comb and a slicker. Pets molt 1–2 times a year: in spring and in fall. During the molting period, not that much hair falls out, but the dog has to be brushed every day.

It is hard to give Samoyed dogs a bath. The whole procedure takes 2–3 hours. You need to make pet`s thick hair wet, rub shampoo into it, then add a conditioner, wait for 5 minutes and wash everything off. Then dry its hair with a special fan. You do not need to give your Samoyed dog a bath very often. Water damages its hair structure and washes off the protective skin layer. It is enough to wash pet`s hair once in few months. However, their paws need to be washed after each walk. Clean dog`s eyes and ears when needed, using cotton swabs. Their teeth should be brushed once a week, using a special paste and a brush. You do not need to trim claws of Samoyed dogs. They get trimmed themselves while the pet walks. 

It is recommended to feed a Samoyed dog with natural food. Even dry feed of high quality can spoil the white coat color and cause allergies. It is possible to choose a good feed, but that is hard to do. Such natural ingredients can be fed to the dog: not greasy meat — beef and chicken; offals; raw sea fish — Samoyed dogs love it; fat free dairy products — cottage cheese, kefir and sour cream; grains — rice and buckwheat; boiled vegetable, that can be mixed with grains and offals. A puppy under the age of 5 months should be fed 4 times a day; under 7 months — 3 times a day; then — 2 times a day.

A Samoyed dog needs to live close to people. It is perfect to keep the pet in a private house with a large yard. These dogs need a lot of place for comfortable life. You cannot put it in an aviary. It affects its psyche in a negative way. If a Samoyed dog lives in a flat — it needs to be walked often and for a long time, at least for 60 minutes 2 times a day.

Health and Illnesses

Samoyed dogs can live up to 15 years if treated well. Their health is strong. This wild breed developed itself without interference of people, that is why these dogs almost never get sick with hereditary health illnesses.

The only serious disorder Samoyed dogs can develop is hip dysplasia. It is either hereditary or acquired disease that disrupts functioning of joints and makes dog feel much pain while moving. That is why you should consult a vet if you notice that your dog starts limping or moving less.

Samoyed dogs often suffer from abdominal bloating. That is why it is important to keep and eye on their diet and size of portions. You should not take the dog outside right after it ate. It is better to wait for at least 60 minutes.

Ancient Samoyed dogs lived in harsh winter conditions. Because cold kills bacteria and germs, pet`s immune system became vulnerable to viral infections: plague, enteritis, rabies, hepatitis. That is why Samoyed dogs need to be regularly vaccinated.

Because of having long fluffy hair, these dogs should be walked in a special collar. Ticks and fleas transmit dangerous diseases and can infect the pet. The collar is better than special drops. If you put any liquid on dog`s hair, it might damage its structure.

History of the Breed

First Samoyed dogs started living with people more than 3000 years ago. Pets got tamed by nomadic Northern tribes of Russia: Nenets, Enets, Nganasans, Selkups and others. It is believed that Samoyed dogs originated from a tamed polar wolf. Tribes used them for hunting, walking deer, carrying goods and sitting with children. Tribes lived together, but in isolation from the rest of the world. That is how the name for the breed appeared — the 
Samoyed dog.

Modern history of the breed began in the 19th century. In 1889, a popular English zoologist named Ernest Kilbourne Scott came to the Far North. He lived with people from tribes for few months. He came back to England not alone, but a white Samoyed dog. Some time later, he also brought a creamy female and one more male from the Western Ural. They became modern founders of the breed.

In 1909, Ernest opened the first breeding place of Samoyed dogs in Europe. That same year, he developed the standard of the breed. It was becoming more and more popular. In the 1930s, breeding places of Samoyed dogs were almost in all countries of Europe.