Russian toy

A young decorative breed with either long or short hair. It is a descendant of an English Toy Terrier. Despite being of a small size, it is a self-confident and active dog that needs much attention from people.

Energy level
Level of affection
Level of friendliness
female: 2—3 kg
male: 2—3 kg
female: 20—28 cm
male: 20—28 cm
requires little time
Gives birth to
Gives birth to:
4—5 puppies
Russian Federation
in 2006
Life span
Life span:
10—13 years


Russkiy Toys are innate companions. It is hard for them to live without a constant interaction with people. Despite being of a small size, these pets require much time and attention. They are active and cheerful dogs that do not like sitting in one place. They like running, playing and participating in family activities. Russkiy Toys are not for people looking for a calm and independent dog.

Russkiy Toys like communicating. They express emotions and feeling through loud barking. They have a well-developed ability to react quickly. If they hear any noise, they will instantly react. This fact makes them small guards. It is hard to walk past a Toy Terrier unnoticed. Russkiy Toys also have a well-developed memory. They can remember what happened 3 years ago, as well as faces of people and other animals.

These pets get on well with other animals. They do not like being dominant and showing aggression. On contrary, these pets need protection. Because Russkiy Toy Terriers are so small, families with children younger that 6 years should not get these animals. It will be safer for dogs.


Russkiy Toys need to be brought up and trained, just like other dogs of decorative breeds. There are no rules for that process. It is crucial not to let the pet do whatever it wants. That is how it will not accept itself as a leader and set its owner`s authority aside. However, it is important to realize that Toy Terriers are sensitive. Rudeness damages their psyche. The pet will become scared and sly, and it might develop depression. That is why it is important to find a way to help your dog grow up obedient, but not scared.

Right after its purchase, Russkiy Toy needs to accept house rules. The first thing you need to teach it not to do is to sleep in a bed with the owner. Dogs of this breed need to sleep separately. It will be safer for the dog, while it might get accidentally harmed while sleeping. The second thing you need to do is to teach your Russkiy Toy Terrier not to bark without a reason. It can be done either by commands, or by ignoring. When the pet starts barking, say «no» to it in a strict way. If you do not pay any attention to the dog at that moment, it will eventually calm down. However, it does not often help. The third thing you have to do is to teach your pet not to bite. They enjoy doing that when they are happy or scared. Russkiy Toys cannot bring harm, but their biting is still unpleasant. When the pet starts barking, say «Ai». That is how the dog will understand that it hurt the owner. 

Toy`s psyche gets formed before it turns 6 months old. It is important to realize this fact. If the dog does not understand and listen to what it is told to do — try working with it later. It is crucial not to forget about dog`s socialization. After the pet turns 3 months old, it needs to be taken outside to get used to other animals and people. Increase the length of street walks with each new month.


Russkiy Toy Terriers are small dogs. Thy are skinny, but with well-developed muscles.
Can be either short or long. Shorthair pets have a coat that lays closely to the body, the undercoat is absent. Coat of longhair dogs is 3–5 cm in length, either wavy or straight. Longer hair grows on ears and legs.
Black-and-tan, brown-and-tan, reddish-blue, lilac-and-tan, fawn, red with a black or a brown tint.
Proportional to body length, rounded, the skull is tall and wide. Stop of the head is well-noticeable. 
Big and rounded, they slightly pop out and are wide-set.
Wide, of an erect type, thin, high-set, triangular in shape.
Long and thin, slightly convex.
Straight, parallel-set.
In a shape of a crescent, high-set, 3 tail vertebrae can be docked.

Basic Care

Russkiy Toy Terriers do not require much time to be groomed. Coat of shorthair pets needs to be brushed once a week, using a special glove. Brush hair of shorthair dogs twice a week. Use a comb with wide teeth. Then pet the dog with wet hands to take off left hairs.

Russkiy Toy Terriers do not need to be given a bath very often. Two times a year will be enough for them. Use a zoo-shampoo for that purpose. Constant contact with water damages their hair and makes dogs` skin dry. A puppy can be given a bath after it turns 6 months old. Trim your Toy`s claws once a month. Clean their ears once a week, using cotton pads soaked in a cleansing solution. Their teeth have to be cleaned once in 2 weeks with a zoo-paste and a special brush. 

Russkiy Toy Terriers can be fed with either high-quality dry or natural food. Both options can even change one another. However, take into consideration the fact that these pets like overeating. That is why their diet needs to be controlled. Such natural products can be given to the pet: not greasy meat — beef, as well as rabbit meat; dairy products containing 3% of fat — kefir, sour cream and sour milk; grains — buckwheat and rice; vegetables — cucumbers, cabbage, beet and carrot; fruits — bananas, apricots, pears and apples. Once a week, sea fish fillet or a boiled chicken egg can be given to the dog. Calculate the size of a portion following such formula: 50—80g of food equal 1 kg of pet`s body weight. A puppy under the age of 5 months needs to eat 5 times a day, under 8 months — 4 times a day, before it turns 1 year old — 3 times a day, then — twice a day (in the morning and in the afternoon, preferably at the same time).

Russkiy Toy Terriers do not need much for comfortable life. They will feel great even living in a small flat. Interaction with people is the most important thing for these dogs. Russkiy Toy Terriers do not necessarily need to be walked — you can teach them how to use a trey to go potty. However, it should be done when the pet is young. During the day, put the pet in a trey after it ate or slept. That is how it will get used to this procedure.

Health and Illnesses

Russkiy Toy Terriers can live up to 13 years if treated well. Sometimes — up to 20 years. Most often, dogs of this breed die not because of disorders, but due to traumas.

Retinal atrophy is a hereditary pathology that leads to destruction of the retina and loss of eyesight. It affects both eyes. It is impossible to cure atrophy.

Cataract is a pathology that makes lens of the eye dark. The darker is the lens, the worse is dog`s eyesight. Most often, cataract develops with time, not gets inherited. It can be surgically cured.

Patellar dislocation is a disorder that mostly affects small dog breeds. There are two types of dislocations: medial and lateral. Medial one develops because of an impaired development of the limb. Tendons of patella, the quadriceps muscle and the patella itself get dislocated. Medial dislocations are more common among dwarf breeds. Lateral one appears after a cruciate ligament injury or a knee inflammation. Most often, it affects large breeds. This pathology can be surgically cured, no matter what breed the dog presents.

Hydrocephalus is also a disorder that is also common among dwarf breeds. It increases the amount of cerebrospinal fluid in ventricles of the brain. Because of it, the liquid stops circulating, and the pet's head gets bigger in size. Nervous tissues of the brain start dying out. It leads to neurological problems. In the beginning, the disorder can be treated with medications. If they do not help, the pet needs to undergo a surgery.

Pancreatitis is an inflammation and destruction of tissues in the pancreas. It develops because of a delay in production of food enzymes. There are two types of pancreatitis: acute and chronic. If the acute form is left untreated, the pet might die in 4 days. Symptoms of pancreatitis include vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite and fatigue. It needs to be treated gradually:

  1. Blood circulation gets restored.
  2. Dog`s pancreas get cleaned out.
  3. Pain can be relieved with drugs.
  4. Inflammation can be decreased, so that tissues of the gland can recover.

Russkiy Toy Terriers have a weak skeleton. That is why it is important to pay much attention to the pet: these dogs cannot jump from height, they should not run a lot and follow a correct diet. As prophylaxis, vitamins and minerals can be added to it. They will help make dog`s skeleton stronger.

History of the Breed

Russkiy Toy Spaniel is a young breed. English Toy Spaniels were their ancestors. They appeared in Russia at the beginning of the 19th century. They immediately became favourite pets of wealthy people. But after the October Revolution, they stopped being bred. The Bolsheviks gave priority to larger breeds in order to use them for protection and military service.

Everything changed in the 50-s. Soviet dog handlers decided to continue working on developing the breed of Toy Terriers. However, they immediately faced problems. Back then, no purebred Toy Terriers could be found in the Soviet Union. Only dogs of unknown breeds, brought by soldiers after the war with Germany, were left. Dog handlers could not bring any dogs from England. That is how they developed a new breed that was different from English Toy Terriers. New pets were two times as small as their relatives. They differed in the form of the skull and constitution.

In 1957, a longhair pet was born in result of a genetic mutation. Dog handlers liked its appearance and started using it in breeding. The breed started becoming more and more popular around the whole Soviet Union. However, people from other countries did not know about this breed`s existence. Everything changed after the Perestroika. Russkiy Toys started participating in international shows, causing arguments. Because of high competition, the breed was not recognized until 2006. However, now, the breed is popular all over the world.