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Pugs

One of the most ancient and popular dog breeds. They are friendly and affectionate pets that like people.

Energy level
Level of affection
Level of friendliness
Intelligence
Health
Independence
Popularity
Care
Aggression
Noise
Weight
Weight:
female: 7—9 kg
male: 8—10 kg
Height
Height:
female: 25 cm
male: 30 cm
Hair
Hair:
smooth
Care
Care:
requires little time
Lives
Lives:
inside
Gives birth to
Gives birth to:
4—6 puppies
Origin
Origin:
China
in 16 century
Life span
Life span:
13—15 years

Personality

Pugs are loyal dogs. They do not get easily through loneliness and require much attention. These pets always need to stay close to people. Pugs adapt to lifestyle of their owner and like to participate in all family activities. They will always show affection and care, their energy and cheerfulness. These pets like active games, but get lazy with time. Pugs are not for people looking for a calm and independent dog. 

Pugs are very friendly. They get on well with other animals and never show aggression. These pets will become harmless friends for small children. However, their games should be controlled, so that the kid does not accidentally hurt the dog. Despite being harmless and small in size, Pugs can be brave. These dogs are ready to protect their territory and owners from strangers.

Training

Even though Pugs are loyal and obedient towards people, it is hard to train them. They are stubborn pets. The first thing that the dog should be taught is recognizing its name. Pugs are smart and will quickly get used to how they are called. However, the owner needs much patience to teach these pets simple commands like «no», «sit down», «come here» and «stay close». If the pug does not listen to you — do not show aggression. These dogs are very sensitive and emotionally vulnerable. These pets need to be trained 2–3 times a day for 10 minutes.

Appearance

Pugs are small dogs. Their body is strong and muscular. They are called “square dogs”. 
Color
Color
Hair
Hair
Head
Head
Eyes
Eyes
Ears
Ears
Neck
Neck
Paws
Paws
Paws
Tail
Short and thin, grows closely to the body. Feels smooth and soft. Hair of pugs of black color feels more stiff. 
Such colors are acceptable: black, beige, apricot and silver. 
Big and rounded. The muzzle is short.
Big, wide, rounded in shape, widely set. Their color is dark, sclera of each eye should not be seen.
Small and thin. They are divided into two types: «button» and «rose». Ears of the first type are leaning forward, covering the outer ear canal. Ears of the second type are located above the head and are leaning backward.
Thin and muscular. 
Short and straight. They are proportional to body length.
Short and curly.

Basic Care

Taking care of pugs requires much time. Their short hair needs to be brushed once a week. During the moulting time — in spring and fall — every day, using a brush for short-haired breeds. Then you should pet your dog with wet hands to take away left hairs. 

Pugs need to be given a bath once a month. It is not recommended to wash them more often. Water washes away the protective layer on their skin. After the walk, pug`s legs should be either wiped with wet towels or washed. Muzzle of these pets requires special attention. Folds on it should be wiped with wet towels after each walk. Dirt and dust might stay on them for a long time, leading to formation of fungus. Big eyes of pugs need to be cleaned two times a week with wet cotton pads. Ears should be checked once a week and cleaned if they get dirty. Trim your dog`s claws once a month.

Pugs should be fed with either high quality dry feed or natural food. It is important to notice that digestive system of these dogs is sensitive. Feed can either be dry or canned. It is important not to mix them into one portion, but to choose one type of feeding. Pugs are prone to obesity. Their natural diet needs to be well-balanced. They can be given: not greasy meat — beef, lamb and chicken; grains: rice, buckwheat, oatmeal; boiled vegetables; fat free dairy products — cottage cheese, sour cream and milk. Food needs to be of room temperature. Pugs need to be fed at the same time every day. Puppies under the age of seven months should be fed three times a day, and adult dog — two times a day.

Pugs, just like any other active dog breed, need walking for comfortable life. That is the way they can spread their energy. However, it should be noticed that the respiratory system of these pets is weak. That is why Pugs always sniff and snore. Hyper- and hypothermia might lead to complications. When it gets cold, Pugs should be dressed in a special costume. When the weather gets hot, it has to be cold in the room. During bad weather conditions, Pugs should be walked for 10-15 minutes; in comfortable conditions — for 30–40 minutes.

Health and Illnesses

Pugs can live up to 15 years if treated well. Their health is strong, but these pets are prone to some illnesses. The most common and dangerous are mentioned below.

Perthes disease is a disorder of the femur and hip joint. It develops at a young age. Structural changes to neck and heads of femur occur. After that, joint fossa gets affected as well. Because of that, head of the bone gets destroyed and leads to joint breakdown. The pet starts limping. If the disorder is not cured, dog`s muscles get atrophied. The illness is diagnosed with X-ray examination. 

Demodicosis is a skin disorder caused by ticks. It mainly occurs in pets with weak immune system. Dog`s hair around mouth, on the chest and legs starts falling out. The disease is cured medically. If you ignore it, demodicosis will be developing and the pet might lose all its hair.

Encephalitis is a serious illness of the nervous system, caused by ticks. Ticks transmit the virus that might get into dog`s bloodstream. There are three types of encephalitis: meningoencephalitis affects the brain; encephalomyelitis changes structure of brain and spinal chord; meningoencephalomyelitis affects the spinal chord. The disease appears when it is too late to cure it and might lead to pet`s death. Its main symptoms include: fatigue, fever, dark color of urine, lack of appetite and vomiting.

Recurrent corneal erosion is an eye disorder. Pet`s cornea gets dark and causes spasms of eyelids. Some time later, blood vessels of the eye burst and it gets filled with blood. 

Brachycephalic syndrome affects soft tissues and worsens functioning of respiratory tracts. The dog develops: stenosis of nostrils, tracheal hypoplasia, soft palate hyperplasia and narrowing of the lumen of nasal passages. Development of these diseases causes tracheal collapse, leading to respiratory failure. That is why it is important to watch your pet`s weight and room temperature. Pugs need to stay in a cool and dry area.

History of the Breed

Pugs are dogs of an ancient Chinese breed. Even though they might look similar to English Bulldogs and Boxers, these pets do not have same ancestors. Pugs are mentioned in ancient manuscripts of Confucius in the 5th-6th centuries AD. A thought exists that pugs originate from Pekingese dogs. At that time, two dog species lived in China: «Ha Pa» and «Luo Jie». The only difference between them was the length of hair. It is believed that Pugs originated from short-haired «Luo Jie» dogs. At those times, Pugs lived in luxury houses with their own servants and guards. Death penalty threatened everybody who would steal a Pug. 

Pugs appeared in Europe in 1553. They were brought to France by a Turkish fleet. These small pets attracted much attention of European aristocrats. They became especially popular in Holland. Alertness of the small pet prevented the leader of the Dutch bourgeoisie William the Silent from making attempts to destroy Spanish independence during the peak of war. The silhouette of a sleeping pug is even curved on the lid of his sarcophagus.

In 1689, these small pets appeared in Britain. Their popularity last for two years, but then it decreased. In 1864, Queen Victoria decided to have a Pug. Twenty years later, the first club of Pug lovers was established. The standard of the breed was then developed. It still remains nowadays.