Miniature pinscher

One of the most ancient miniature breeds. It is a sociable and loyal dog with a complicated personality.

Energy level
Level of affection
Level of friendliness
female: 3—4 kg
male: 4—5 kg
female: 25—28 cm
male: 25—30 cm
requires little time
Gives birth to
Gives birth to:
3—4 puppy
in 18 century
Life span
Life span:
12—16 years


Miniature Pinschers are courageous and loud dogs. Despite being small in size, they are not afraid of large dogs. These pets are ready to fearlessly protect their territory and owner from danger. They express emotions and worries by loud barking. That is how they show love and loyalty.

Zwergpinscher dogs are very active and curious. These pets like exploring everything that is going on around. They always follow the owner and participate in all family activities. Because of their small sizes, all places in the house are accessible for them. Miniature Pinschers can feel the mood of people. Because of well-developed intelligence, they can manipulate the owner. That is why these pets have to be trained. Zwergpinscher dogs are not for people looking for a calm pet.

It is not recommended to keep a Miniature Pinscher with other animals These pets are jealous and like being dominant. However, they get on well with small children. The dog will play and have fun with the kid. It is important to make sure that the child does not hurt the pet.


Pinschers are smart dogs that easily remember new commands. However, they have a complex personality and, therefore, have to be trained. A disobedient Pinscher is a problem. While appearing small and cute from the outside, they are actually very cunning. These dogs like imposing their opinions and disobeying. Excessive love and affection towards a Pinscher might spoil the relationship between the dog and the owner.

You need to train your dog diligently and a lot. The earlier your start, the better it is. A Pinscher has to respect its owner and understand that his word is a rule. That is why it is important to always remain calm and confident in front of the dog.

It is important for a Pinscher to learn such commands as «no», «come here», «go to your place». Because of well-developed curiosity, these dogs like exploring what is under bushes, coming to strangers and other animals. If you do not socialize the dog, it will become aggressive to everything around it.

Because of a high level of activity, Pinschers easily overcome barriers and obstacles. It is one of the most dexterous breeds. Well-trained Miniature Pinschers reach much success in a popular type of dog sport — agility. However, getting the dog ready for it should be done by professional trainers.


Miniature Pinschers are small pets. They do not get more than 30 cm in height. Their body is thin and muscular.
Short, smooth and shiny.
Deer and fawn colors are acceptable.
Small and flat, wedge-shaped. 
Small, rounded. Their color is always dark-brown.
Can be either floppy or erect-type ears. They are high-set, reminding of a triangle.
Of medium length, thin.
Straight and parallel, with strong bones.
Long, saber-shaped. It can be docked.

Basic Care

Miniature Pinschers do not require much time to be groomed. Their short hair needs to be brushed once a week. During the molting period — in spring and fall — 2 times a week, using a soft bristle brush. Then pet your dog with wet hands to take off left hairs.

These dogs are neat. You should give them a bath only when it is very needed. However, paws need to be wiped after each walk. Their teeth need much attention. They should be brushed 2–3 times a week, using a special paste and a brush. Clean pet`s eyes and ears when needed, using a wet fabric. Their claws should be trimmed once a month.

Miniature Pinschers can be fed with either high quality dry or natural food. These dogs spend a lot of energy, that is why their diet should include 40% of proteins. Such natural ingredients can be fed to the dog: not greasy meat — beef, chicken and horse meat; grains — wheat porridge, oatmeal and rice; fat free dairy products — sour cream, cottage cheese and kefir; boiled vegetables. Dry and natural food can change one another. However, it is important not to mix them in one portion. An adult dog needs to be fed 2 times a day, preferably at the same time. A puppy under the age of 5 months — 3 times a day.

Miniature Pinschers need to live inside. For comfortable living, they need a lot of physical exercises. If the dog does not spend its energy outside — it will do that in the flat. Pinschers should be walked 3 times a day, better without a leash. In cold weather, the pet should be dressed in a jumpsuit. It will protect the dog from wind and rain.

Health and Illnesses

Miniature Pinschers can live up to 16 years if treated well. This is the breed of long-livers. However, just like all other dogs, they are prone to some diseases.

Retinal atrophy disrupts functioning of cells in the retina. Because of it, they stop transmitting signals about colors to the brain and, as result, dog`s eyesight gets worse. Atrophy can be either acquired or congenital. If it is not cured at early stages — the dog might become blind.

Perthes disease is a hereditary health problem that disrupts normal functioning of the hip joint. Blood stops coming to dog`s femur. As result, bone marrow does not get needed substances. Necrosis of muscular tissues starts developing. It leads to destruction of the subchondral bone and joint of the hip. If the disease is not cured in time, the Pinscher might stop being able to walk. Main symptoms include muscular atrophy and limping. Most often, the Parthes disease appears at a young age — when the puppy is 4–6 months old.

Pinschers suffer from epilepsy quite often. It s a neurological illness that disrupts functioning of neurons in dog`s brain. It stops controlling processes of excitation and inhibition in the body. This leads to short-term seizures and cramps.

Hypothyroidism is a disorder of the thyroid gland. It appears because of incorrect metabolism of hormones in the body. Lack of enzymes leads to malfunctioning of organs and such pathologies as: tumors, obesity, paralysis, ulcers and dry skin. Hypothyroidism can be either congenital or acquired.

History of the Breed

There is no exact data when Miniature Pinschers appeared. For the first time, Zwergpinscher dogs were mentioned in the 18th century in Germany. Specialists believe that long-haired German Pinscher, Dachshund and Italian Greyhound were ancestors of modern Miniature Pinschers. They were developed for catching rats in horse stables. However, as time passed, Zwergpinscher dogs became domesticated. Some German people called these dogs «Deer Pinschers» for looking similar to deer. Others called them Mini-Dobermans.

The breed started being officially developed in the second half of the 19th century. In 1880, the standard of it was registered. And in 1895, the first club of Miniature Pinscher lovers was established. In 1900, these dogs participated in the first show in Stuttgart. The breed started becoming more and more popular around Europe. In 1905, it was added to the French pedigree book. After WWI, some Pinschers were imported to the USA. In 1929, the breed was registered by the AKC, and an American Club of Miniature Pinscher lovers was established.