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Pomeranian spitz

A popular decorative breed. It is the smallest one out of Spitzes. They are affectionate and energetic dogs with a nice appearance and fluffy hair.

Energy level
Level of affection
Level of friendliness
Intelligence
Health
Independence
Popularity
Care
Aggression
Noise
Weight
Weight:
female: 2—3 kg
male: 2—3 kg
Height
Height:
female: 16—21 cm
male: 18—22 cm
Hair
Hair:
long
Care
Care:
require average time
Lives
Lives:
inside
Gives birth to
Gives birth to:
2—3 puppy
Origin
Origin:
Germany
in 18 century
Life span
Life span:
13—16 years

Personality

Pomeranians are curious pets. Participating in family activities, making owners happy and investigating everything around are their favourite things to do. Pomeranians do not like simply laying on the couch. You need to play with these dogs, paying them enough attention. Pets of this breed do not get easily through loneliness. Without interaction with people, Pomeranians get bored. In order to find something to do, they might start damaging furniture and chewing on shoes. Meanwhile, Pomeranians can adapt to their owner`s lifestyle: these pets do not wake them up in the morning, wait for owners after work and do not disturb them when they are busy. However, this breed is not for people looking for a calm and independent dog. 

A special feature of dogs of this breed is their loud barking. These pets do not bark without a reason. That is how they share their emotions and worries. There is a lot of energy and ardour in these pets. They react to every small movement, which makes them small guard dogs. Nobody can walk past a Pomeranian unnoticed.

Pomeranians do not get on well with other animals. They like being dominant, especially with other Pomeranians. It is hard for them to share their owner`s attention with another animal. However, if pets grew up together — there should be no conflicts. The situation is the same with children. Pomeranians need time to get used to children. That is why it is better to control their games.

Training

Pomeranians are one of the smartest breeds among Spitzes. However, they are also stubborn. It is hard to make a Pomeranian do something that it does not want to do. You need to find a way to do it.

When you bring up a Pomeranian, it is crucial not to let it manipulate you with their cute appearance. If you let your dog do whatever it wants, it will grow up into an uncontrollable pet: it will bark, attack people and damage furniture. That is why it is crucial to demonstrate your authority to the pet. That is how you will get its respect. It is important not to be rude to the pet. It will only damage its psyche.

It is important to realize that Spitzes are not able to perform difficult tricks. They need to be taught house rules, basic commands, and these dogs also need to socialize well. Starting from the first days after its purchase, the pet needs to understand what is allowed to be done, and what is not. After the puppy turns 3 months old, you can start working on its socialization. Take the dog outside for 10–15 minutes. Get it used to other animals and people. Increase its time, spent outside, with each new month. Start training your dog when it turns 4 months old. It will be enough for a Pomeranian to learn basic commands like: «go to your place», «lay down», «sit down», «no», «come here», «stay close» and others. The best way to train your dog is to play games with it. It a pet understands that a prize will be waiting for it after completing a command — it will complete it. Spend no more than 10–15 minutes every day on the training process.

Apart from training your Pomeranian on your own, you can take it to training courses. Obedience trial is a course of training that can help the dog learn basic commands. IPO is an international system of bringing up dogs. It teaches dogs obedience, protection, fetching, tricks and performing at shows. The course lasts 1–2 years.

Appearance

Pomeranians are small dogs. Their body is graceful and muscular. They look similar to foxes. According to the standard, they cannot be higher than 22 cm. Their weight, needed for shows, is 2 kg.
Color
Color
Hair
Hair
Head
Head
Eyes
Eyes
Ears
Ears
Neck
Neck
Paws
Paws
Paws
Tail
Long and fluffy. A thick undercoat is present. It is of silky structure, and it does not get mated.
There are 11 colors that are acceptable for Pomeranians: blue, black, orange, sable, creamy, white, chinchilla, blue-and-tan, black-and-tan, chocolate and bicolor.
Small, wedge-shaped. The snout is smaller than the skull.
Of medium size, almond- or oval-shaped, oblique. Their color is black or dark-brown.
Triangular-shaped, their tips are sharp and stiff. However, these puppies get born with floppy ears.
Of medium length, elongated, high-set.
Wide-set, muscular, hind legs are parallel, but less rounded than front ones.
Not long, high-set, covered with thick hair, carried high and flat over the back.

Basic Care

Pomeranians require medium amount of time to be groomed. Their long and thick hair needs to be brushed once a week. During the molting time — in spring and fall — twice a day, using a comb with long teeth, a massage brush and a slicker. Brushing is required so that dog`s hair does not get mated. It is important to know that females molt additionally during estrus and after giving birth. Spitzes also need to be given haircuts. You can either do it yourself, or take your pet to a professional groomer. It is better to use thinning shears for that purpose. It is important to shorten dog`s hair in the tail area, as well as under legs. If your pet participates in shows, its hair needs to be cut once a month. It has to be done by a groomer.

A German Spitz needs to be given a bath 1–2 times a month. For that purpose, use a shampoo for longhair breeds. Then, use a conditioner and a hairdryer. It is important to leave dog`s hair slightly wet, so that it is easier to be brushed. Teeth of Pomeranians require much attention. They need to be cleaned 3–4 times a week, using a zoo-paste and a special brush. Check your pet`s ears every day and clean them when needed, using cotton swabs. As prophylaxis, you can use a 3% peroxide solution, and then clean out the earwax. Wipe dog`s eyes when needed, using cotton pads. Trim your dog`s claws once a month.

It is recommended to feed Pomeranians with dry food of premium quality. They contain vitamins and minerals, needed for dog`s health. Natural food is not an option for Pomeranians. Calculate the size of a portion by such formula: 25g of food equal 1 kg of dog`s body weight. A puppy under the age of 4 months needs to eat 4 times a day, under 1 year — 3 times a day, then — twice a day (in the morning and in the evening, preferably at the same time). Sometimes, natural ingredients can also be given to the dog: boiled not greasy meat — beef and chicken; grains — rice, oatmeal and buckwheat; boiled eggs.

Pomeranians need to live inside. Despite having long hair, these pets are not used for living outside. Meanwhile, they like street walks. Spitzes need to be walked for 20–30 minutes twice a day. However, time, spent on street walks, should be reduced when it is cold outside.

Health and Illnesses

Pomeranians can live up to 16 years if treated well. Unlike other decorative dog breeds, they have a strong health. A few hereditary health problems might affect pets of this breed. Most problems occur because of dog`s physiology. Most often, dogs with a marble coat color get affected. They get born deaf, having glaucoma and entropion. Apart from these disorders, there are some diseases that might affect Pomaranians of any coat color.

Patellar diclocation is a pathology that makes patella dislocated in relation to the femoral bone. A dog might get born with a patellar dislocation, or it might appear as a result of a trauma. There are four stages of patellar dislocation. They depend on complexity of the disorder:

  1. A dog can walk, but patella sometimes leaves the block and returns back to its place. 
  2. Patella gets dislocated more often, coming back to its original state. However, because of it, block of the bone gets rubbed off and becomes flat.
  3. Patella is dislocated by half. When it gets back to the block, it is still located in the wrong way. Dog feels pain while moving. It cannot step on the paw.
  4. Patella is dislocated and does not come back to the block. The dog feels pain even when it does not lean on the leg.

The pathology can be surgically cured.

Retinal atrophy is a congenital disorder that disrupts retinal structure and leads to loss of eyesight. It is impossible to cure atrophy. 

Hypoglycemia is a disorder that leads to a decrease or an increase of glucose level in blood. Low level of glucose disrupts blood circulation in the liver, leads to spontaneous bleeding and affects metabolism in a negative way. Increased level of glucose leads to an increased level of insulin and a loss of appetite. Main symptoms of hypoglycemia include: frequent salivation, fatigue, diarrhea and cold. If you notice any of these symptoms, you should consult a vet. Often, hypoglycemia develops because of an incorrect diet or stress.

Hydrocephalus is a hereditary disorder that leads to accumulation of fluid in ventricles of the brain. As result, pressure in the brain increases, and dog`s head becomes larger in size. The brain stops being able to perform some of its functions. Main symptoms of the disorder are the following: the dog starts running in a circle, turning its head to different sides. Treatment depends on complexity of the disorder: it can either be cured with medications, or surgically.

Hair of Pomeranians will get mated if you do not take care of it. Bacause of it, hairless spots will appear on different parts of dog`s body. It does not affect pet`s health, but it also does not look nice.

History of the Breed

Peat dogs were ancestors of Pomeranians. They were bred in the Neolithic. Skeletons, discovered by archaeologists, can prove that. Those dogs were large, strong and enduring. Northern tribes were using them for long-distance travelling in harsh weather conditions. Southern tribes used these dogs for guarding ships and possessions. Everything changed in the Middle Ages. Because of their appearance and cheerfulness, dogs were kept by aristocrats as house pets.

Popularization of the breed started in Germany. That is where Spitzes started being developed. Spitzhounds were first representatives of the breed. By the beginning of the 18th century, most residents of all countries in the Middle Ages kept Spitzhounds. However, it is not known for sure when Pomeranians appeared. Different dog handlers have different thoughts about origination of the breed. Some people believe that a German city of Württemberg is their homeland. Others believe it to be the Province of Prussia — Pomerania. The rest of dog handlers believe their ancestors to be dogs living in Germany. The second opinion is believed to be an official version.

Back then, Pomeranians weighted up to 15 kg. German dog handlers worked on their appearance in order to make them smaller. Dog owners from England continued their work. Queen Victoria found out about these fluffy pets. She became their big fan from the first sight. It affected popularity of Pomeranians. At the end of the 19th century, a special club was created for keeping dogs of this breed. Noble ladies and gentlemen were members of the club. Their hobbies turned out into dog-breeding: first dog breeding places started being opened in England. Some time later, working on dog`s appearance gave results — Pomeranians became smaller. 

In 1892, dogs if this breed appeared in America. Despite not being accepted by associations, Pomeranians did not lose their popularity. American Kennel club officially recognized the breed only at the beginning of the 20th century. Eleven years later, the first show of Pomeranians was held. Most dog owners of America came to the show to win. Back then, dogs of this breed were called German or Dwarf Spitzes. However, later, they were renamed to Pomeranians. Now, an international organization FCI regards Pomeranians as a subspecies of a German Spitz.