One of the most popular breeds in the world. It is an all-purpose dog that will become a loyal friend, a reliable guard and a family companion.

Energy level
Level of affection
Level of friendliness
female: 32—35 kg
male: 40—45 kg
female: 61—68 cm
male: 66—72 cm
requires little time
Gives birth to
Gives birth to:
5—10 puppies
in 1890
Life span
Life span:
10—14 years


Dobermans are attentive and self-confident dogs. They are always paying attention to everything around. It is important for these pets to control everything, while their mission is to protect and serve people. Because of that, Dobermans treat strangers with suspicion, but they will not attack without a command. Owner`s word is a strict rule for them. 

Despite well-developed guarding skills, Dobermans are very affectionate. They treat children with love and like active games. These dogs will not show any aggression even if the kid accidentally hurts it. Dobermans know the line between good and bad acts. They respect and love all family members. But these dogs might conflict with other animals. Dobermans like being dominant, and if there is another pet in the house, they will start being jealous. However, if animals grow together, everything will be alright.


Dobermans are smart dogs. They like learning. However, it is incorrect to think that they do not need any training. Without it, Dobermans might become disobedient and aggressive.

During the first year of life, the puppy needs to understand where its place is and accept its owner`s authority. Dobermans need a leader. If these dogs do not respect a person, they will not listen to his commands. That is why Dobermans need to be trained by confident adults. Perseverance and discipline are the most important keys to training a Dobermann. If the dog does not listen to you — be patient. These pets cannot be hurt. Cruel attitude will only make

the situation worse: the dog will stop behaving well and become aggressive. The first thing a puppy needs to learn is basic commands like «go to your place», «no», «come here», «fetch». If the dog listens to you — it should be praised and given a treat. Dobermans like when they are being praised. More complicated commands like «attack» and «protect» should be taught by professionals.


Dobermans are large dogs. Their body is sporty and muscular. Outwardly, these dogs look graceful and elegant, without flaws.
Short and smooth, with natural shining. It lays closely to the body. A small undercoat might grow around the neck.
There are two colors: black; dark brown with rusty-red, reddish-red markings. White, isabella, fawn, blue and others are considered marriage.
Flat, wedge-shaped. It is proportional to body length.
Of medium size, high-set. They can be docked.
Of medium size, high-set. They can be docked.

Long and muscular.
Straight and muscular.
High-set, of medium length. It can be docked.

Basic Care

Dobermans do not require much time to be groomed. Their short hair should be brushed once a week with a stiff bristle brush. Then pet your dog with wet hands to take off left hairs. 

These dogs are neat and do not produce a very noticeable odor. It is not recommended to give them a bath very often. Water washes off the protective skin layer and disrupts immune system functioning. That is why these pets need to be given a bath once in half a year. If your Dobermann lives in a flat, its paws should be wiped with wet towels after every street walk. Eyes and ears of these dogs need to be checked weekly and cleaned with cotton pads when needed. Brush their teeth once a week with a special paste and a brush. Dobermans` claws grow very fast, that is why they need to be trimmed once a month. 

It is recommended to feed Dobermans with either high quality dry feed or natural food. The most important thing is that their diet needs to be well-balanced. A dog that weighs less than 25 kg should be fed with dry feed, and one that is heavier than 25 kg — with natural food: not greasy meat — preferably veal; grains — buckwheat, rice, wheat porridge and oatmeal; vegetables — carrot, cabbage, squash; fat free dairy products — cottage cheese, kefir and sour cream. Once a week, a chicken egg should be fed to these dogs. Grains can be cooked in meat broth. A puppy under the age of 2 months should be fed 6 times a day; under 4 months — 5 times a day; under 8 months — 4 times a day. Then, the dog should adapt to the «adult» diet and eat 2 times a day. 

Dobermans can live either inside and outside. Their hair is short, which makes them vulnerable to coldness. For that reason, if your Doberman lives in an aviary, it needs to be insulated. However, if it is very cold outside, the dog should be let inside. Dobermans are active dogs. Physical exercises are important for them. That is why these pets needs to be walked for 2 hours 2 times a day. In winter, Dobermans should be dressed in warm jumpsuits, and walking time needs to be reduced to 10–15 minutes.

Health and Illnesses

Dobermans can live up to 14 years if treated well. Their health is strong. However, due to bad breeding work, some hereditary illnesses appeared. 

Dobermans have a weak heart. They might suffer from: ischemic diseases, tachycardia, arrhythmia and heart failure. These disorders often occur before the dog turns 5 years old. That is why it is important to watch your dog`s health condition. Low activity level, dyspnea, fatigue, loss of coordination and cramps are main symptoms. If you notice at least one of them in your dog — you should take it to the vet. 

A serious hereditary health issue of Dobermans is narcolepsy. It is a neurological disorder that disrupts dog`s sleep. Because the pet does not sleep well, its physical state worsens: fatigue, daily sleepiness appear; loss of appetite occurs. During exacerbations, Dobermans become motionless. It lasts from few seconds to 15 minutes. It is hard to cure the disease. However, with help of specialists, the amount of seizures can be reduced. 

Because of bad nutrition, Dobermans might suffer from upset stomach. Main symptoms include vomiting, abdominal bloating, excessive salivation and loss of appetite. Dog becomes aggressive because of pain. In order to cure the disease, the pet needs to be taken to a vet, and its diet has to be changed. 

It is important to make sure that the place where the Doberman lives is clean. These pets are prone to allergies. Dust, pollen, mold and fungus cause a serious allergic reaction — sacral granuloma. It is hard to cure the disease, even with the help of drugs.

History of the Breed

Doberman is a result of breeding experiments. The breed was developed by a tax collector named Karl Friedrich Louis Dobermann. For safety, Karl needed a reliable guard. Having visited a dog show, he started thinking about developing a new breed that would be enduring, strong and smart.

In 1880, Karl bought a small house and invited god owners. A hard work began. It cannot be calculated how many dog breeds they involved. Nobody wrote down the result of their work. However, it is known for sure that such breeds were used: Rottweiler, German Pinscher, Beauceron, Mastiff, Pointer, Sighthound and Manchester Terrier. The process last 6 years. In 1886, first Dobermans participated in a show. 

At first, the breed was called «Turing Pinscher». In 1894, Karl Dobermann died and the breed was named in his honor. Dogs he developed were smart, strong and enduring, but also aggressive and disobedient. Otto Goeller improved their characteristics. Dobermans became obedient and disciplined. These pets started being kept in houses. In 1899 in the Apolda town, the first club of Doberman Pinschers was established. The breed was becoming more and more popular, and 1 year later, the club became national. In 1900, Dobermans were accepted as a separate breed. 

In 1908, the first Dobermann dog was brought to America for participating in a show. The breed took the first place in nomination «Best in Show». That is how Dobermans gained popularity in America. In 1921, the first club was established there. During WWII, the US Marine Corps adapted Dobermans as official war dogs. In 1949, Dobermans stopped being called «Pinschers». And only in 1994 the FCI registered the breed.