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Dachshund

One of the most popular hunt-type dog breeds. It is a courageous dog with a complicated personality that needs a lot of attention of people.

Energy level
Level of affection
Level of friendliness
Intelligence
Health
Independence
Popularity
Care
Aggression
Noise
Weight
Weight:
female: 9 kg
male: 9 kg
Height
Height:
female: 30—35 cm
male: 30—35 cm
Hair
Hair:
smooth
Care
Care:
requires little time
Lives
Lives:
inside
Gives birth to
Gives birth to:
4—6 puppies
Origin
Origin:
Germany
in 16 century
Life span
Life span:
13—15 years

Personality

Dachshunds are courageous and stubborn pets. Without these qualities, they would not be able to: dig holes, chase prey and attack rivals. These dogs like making decisions themselves. That is why they are considered disobedient pets. However, they behave that way not because of having a spoiled personality, but because that is in their blood. While hunting in wild forests, Dachshunds were often in danger. In order to survive, they always relied on intuition.

Meanwhile, Dachshunds are affectionate and loyal dogs. They get very attached to people and need a lot of their attention. These dogs like following the owner and participating in all family activities. They can feel the mood of people and can support them when needed. This breed is perfect for lonely people.

Dachshunds get on well with other animals and love small children. This dog will never bite first. However, it will not let anyone hurt it as well. They have a well-developed memory. They remember who treated them what way very well. Dachshunds treat strangers with suspicion. They protect their territory and owners from possible danger. These pets can bark loudly. That is how they share their emotions and worries.

Training

Dachshunds are smart dogs. They understand people, but do not always listen to commands. That is why these pets need to be trained starting from a young age. Otherwise, it will be hard to teach the dog anything. The dog needs to see authority in its owner in order to obey him. It is important to explain to a Dachshund what is allowed to do, and what is not. You have to talk to the dog with a calm and confident voice. You should never show aggression towards it. Dachshunds are resentful and cunning. If you treat them in a bad way — they will not respect the owner. 

The first thing a Dachshund needs to remember is its name. Each time the dog reacts to it — praise it. These pets are very curious. They like following people and going to forbidden places. That is why the second thing they have to remember are such commands as «no» and «go to your place». Then, teach your dog basic commands: «sit down», «stay close», «lay down». It is important to praise the dog and give it a treat for successfully completing commands. 

The dog needs to learn to socialize after it turns 3 months old. Training should take place outside, so that the pet gets used to noise and other animals.

Appearance

Dachshunds are small dogs. Their body is long, legs are short. Judging by appearance, they can be divided into 3 types: standard, small and rabbit Dachshunds.
Color
Color
Hair
Hair
Head
Head
Eyes
Eyes
Ears
Ears
Neck
Neck
Paws
Paws
Paws
Tail
Dachshunds can be divided into 3 types according to their hair structure: smooth-, stiff- and long-haired. Hair of smooth-haired dogs is short and thick, it lays closely to the body. It feels stiff and thick. Stiff-haired Dachshunds have straight stiff hair with an undercoat. The last type of these pets has long hair that lays closely to the body.
For long- and short-haired Dachshunds popular colors are: black, red, pale yellow, gray, reddish-yellow, black, brown, marble and tiger. For stiff-haired dogs popular colors are from light to dark shades of boar color.
Elongated, wedge-shaped.
Of medium size, oval-shaped, high-set. Their colors are: reddish-brown, dark-brown. Blue eye color is also acceptable.
Long and floppy, with rounded tips.
Long and muscular.
Straight and short. Hind legs are longer than front ones.
Short, low-set.

Basic Care

Dachshunds do not require much time to be groomed. No matter what hair type is, they need to be brushed once in 2 weeks. During the molting period — in spring and fall — once a week, using a special brush. Then pet your dog with wet hands to take off left hairs.

Dachshunds are neat dogs. It is recommended to give them a bath once in 3–4 months, using a zoo-shampoo or a shampoo for children. Then dry your pet with a towel. Check its eyes and ears once a week, clean them when needed using a towel, soaked in warm water. Dog`s teeth should be cleaned once in 10 days with a special paste and a brush, so that tartar does not develop. Puppy`s claws need to be trimmed 2 times a month. If an adult dog walks outside often — its claws will get trimmed themselves by moving against asphalt. However, you should trim them once in 3 months.

Dachshunds can be fed with either high quality dry or natural food. Premium-quality feeds contain vitamins and minerals. Needed for your dog`s health. Such natural ingredients can be fed to the dog: not greasy meat — beef, chicken and turkey; grains — oatmeal, rice and buckwheat. Grains can be cooked in meat broth and mixed with pieces of meat. Two times a week, chicken eggs, mixed with cottage cheese, should be fed to the dog. Once a week, boiled boneless sea fish can be given. Dry and natural food can change one another. However, it is important not to mix them in one portion. A puppy under the age of 10 months should be fed 3 times a day, an adult dog needs to eat twice a day.

Dachshunds are domesticated dogs. They need a lot of free space and active walks for comfortable living. These pets should be walked for 30–40 minutes 2–3 times a day. It is important to watch that these dogs do not jump from height. Their back is sensitive to pressure, that is why Dachshunds cannot be held at the withers.

Health and Illnesses

Dachshunds can live up to 15 years if treated well. Their health is strong. These pets almost never get sick. However, the breed gets affected by 2 serious disorders that either get inherited, or appear with age.

Swimmers syndrome is a hereditary health issue that disrupts bone and muscle structure of the dog. Such puppies get born with deformed thoracic cavity and atrophied muscles. Because of that, they cannot stand on legs and crawl instead. First symptoms appear 3 weeks after the birth. The disorder can be cured, but it is hard to do that. The puppy needs to be constantly taken to water procedures, leg massages and hydrotherapy.

Intervertebral disc dysplasia damages structure of the discs and puts pressure on the spinal cord. Much pressure can paralyze the dog. The disorder is divided into 3 types.

  1. Intervertebral disc dysplasia of the first type affects the central zone of the disc. It gets mineralized and displaced into the spinal canal. Dog feels pain while moving.
  2. Intervertebral disc dysplasia of the second type destroys the disc and displaces it into the spinal canal, gradually putting pressure on the spinal cord. The dog feels pain while walking. Its hind legs become weaker.
  3. Intervertebral disc dysplasia of the third type causes a disk split that presses against the spinal cord and damages it. Hind legs get paralyzed, and pain remains. The disease usually appears when the dog is 5–7 years old. If your pet starts limping — you need to take it to the vet.

Adult Dachshunds often suffer from epilepsy. Dog`s coordination worsens, and vomiting occurs. The seizure lasts from 2 to 30 minutes and stops itself. 

Despite the fact that health of Dachshunds is strong and hereditary health disorders develop very rarely, it is important to watch their diet and level of physical activity. Do not forget that your pet needs to be vaccinated and taken to a vet in time.

History of the Breed

Dachshund is the oldest burrowing dog breed. Their ancestors were depicted on Egyptian papyrus found in tombs of the pharaohs. 16th century is believed to have set start to formation of the breed. Dachshunds were developed in Southern Germany. In German, the name of the breed means «badger hunter». Genetic ancestors of the breed were short-legged hounds. Dachshunds inherited their speed and hunter instincts by having short legs.

German people used these pets to protect farming and chase badgers. It was not hard to keep Dachshunds — they did not eat a lot, nor did they need much space for living. This made them even more priceless. At the end of the 17th century, Dachshunds became the most popular dogs in Germany. Their popularity was rising, and dog breeders opened first breeding places. Because there was no standard of the breed, people developed them how ever they wanted. Two types of Dachshunds appeared: hunter and domestic. In 1870, the standard of the breed was developed, and it was added to the «Hunters» category. Special training programs were created to develop hunting skills in dogs. They are still used nowadays. In 1888, the first club of Dachshund lovers was established. And in 1891, they participated in a show.

Dachshunds were brought to the Commonwealth of Independent States at the beginning of the 19th century. They were used not for hunting, but for staying in a house. Famous Dachshunds owners include: Maria Yermolova and a well-known writer Anton Pavlovich Chekhov. 

After two World Wars, the popularity of Dachshunds was shortened to only 11 representatives of the breed. However, thanks to hard work of dog breeders, Dachshund`s population was restored. In 2001, FCI registered the official standard of the breed.